Display file contents in octal, decimal or hexadecimal format. Optionally display the byte offsets and/or printable representation for each line.

# To display file using default settings: octal format, 8 bytes per line, byte offsets in octal, and duplicate lines replaced with *:
od path/to/file

# To display file in verbose mode, i.e. without replacing duplicate lines with *:
od -v path/to/file

# To display file in hexadecimal format (2-byte units), with byte offsets in decimal format:
od --format=x --address-radix=d -v path/to/file

# To display file in hexadecimal format (1-byte units), and 4 bytes per line:
od --format=x1 --width=4 -v path/to/file

# To display file in hexadecimal format along with its character representation, and do not print byte offsets:
od --format=xz --address-radix=n -v path/to/file

# To read only 100 bytes of a file starting from the 500th byte:
od --read-bytes 100 --skip-bytes=500 -v path/to/file