How to encode and decode strings with Base64 in JavaScript.

var Base64 = {

  // private property
  _keyStr: "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/=",

  // public method for encoding
  encode: function (input) {
    var output = "";
    var chr1, chr2, chr3, enc1, enc2, enc3, enc4;
    var i = 0;

    input = Base64._utf8_encode(input);

    while (i < input.length) {

      chr1 = input.charCodeAt(i++);
      chr2 = input.charCodeAt(i++);
      chr3 = input.charCodeAt(i++);

      enc1 = chr1 >> 2;
      enc2 = ((chr1 & 3) << 4) | (chr2 >> 4);
      enc3 = ((chr2 & 15) << 2) | (chr3 >> 6);
      enc4 = chr3 & 63;

      if (isNaN(chr2)) {
        enc3 = enc4 = 64;
      } else if (isNaN(chr3)) {
        enc4 = 64;
      }

      output = output + this._keyStr.charAt(enc1) + this._keyStr.charAt(enc2) + this._keyStr.charAt(enc3) + this._keyStr.charAt(enc4);

    }

    return output;
  },

  // public method for decoding
  decode: function (input) {
    var output = "";
    var chr1, chr2, chr3;
    var enc1, enc2, enc3, enc4;
    var i = 0;

    input = input.replace(/[^A-Za-z0-9\+\/\=]/g, "");

    while (i < input.length) {

      enc1 = this._keyStr.indexOf(input.charAt(i++));
      enc2 = this._keyStr.indexOf(input.charAt(i++));
      enc3 = this._keyStr.indexOf(input.charAt(i++));
      enc4 = this._keyStr.indexOf(input.charAt(i++));

      chr1 = (enc1 << 2) | (enc2 >> 4);
      chr2 = ((enc2 & 15) << 4) | (enc3 >> 2);
      chr3 = ((enc3 & 3) << 6) | enc4;

      output = output + String.fromCharCode(chr1);

      if (enc3 != 64) {
        output = output + String.fromCharCode(chr2);
      }
      if (enc4 != 64) {
        output = output + String.fromCharCode(chr3);
      }

    }

    output = Base64._utf8_decode(output);

    return output;

  },

  // private method for UTF-8 encoding
  _utf8_encode: function (string) {
    string = string.replace(/\r\n/g, "\n");
    var utftext = "";

    for (var n = 0; n < string.length; n++) {

      var c = string.charCodeAt(n);

      if (c < 128) {
        utftext += String.fromCharCode(c);
      } else if ((c > 127) && (c < 2048)) {
        utftext += String.fromCharCode((c >> 6) | 192);
        utftext += String.fromCharCode((c & 63) | 128);
      } else {
        utftext += String.fromCharCode((c >> 12) | 224);
        utftext += String.fromCharCode(((c >> 6) & 63) | 128);
        utftext += String.fromCharCode((c & 63) | 128);
      }

    }

    return utftext;
  },

  // private method for UTF-8 decoding
  _utf8_decode: function (utftext) {
    var string = "";
    var i = 0;
    var c = c1 = c2 = 0;

    while (i < utftext.length) {

      c = utftext.charCodeAt(i);

      if (c < 128) {
        string += String.fromCharCode(c);
        i++;
      } else if ((c > 191) && (c < 224)) {
        c2 = utftext.charCodeAt(i + 1);
        string += String.fromCharCode(((c & 31) << 6) | (c2 & 63));
        i += 2;
      } else {
        c2 = utftext.charCodeAt(i + 1);
        c3 = utftext.charCodeAt(i + 2);
        string += String.fromCharCode(((c & 15) << 12) | ((c2 & 63) << 6) | (c3 & 63));
        i += 3;
      }

    }

    return string;
  }
}

// 
// USAGE
// 

// Define the string
var string = 'Hello World!';

// Encode the String
var encodedString = Base64.encode(string);
console.log(encodedString); // Outputs: "SGVsbG8gV29ybGQh"

// Decode the String
var decodedString = Base64.decode(encodedString);
console.log(decodedString); // Outputs: "Hello World!"